EJLLS Publication

Title: The Syntax Of N-Bar In Lokaa
Author(s): Onun Ewa UBI
Abstract: This paper attempts to analyse N-bar and attest to its validity in Lokaa syntax. This is done with a view to identifying the intermediate level category projection within the purview of x-bar module as developed in Chomsky’s lectures on Government and Binding Theory (1981), Radford (1988), Carnie (2007) etc. The focus of this paper is to descriptively account for the presence of the intermediate N-bar level category in Lokaa. The Lokaa data is contextually–based. The demonstrative: imaa, imin or iminaa “this one”, points to objects relatively near the speaker or the hearer. It may be roughly translated as “this one/these ones”. The above demonstratives tend to overlap each other and import the same semantic output. However, Lokaa native speakers know when or which situation is appropriate for their use to express the desired effect. Theoretical review and concepts were explained with the hope of giving insights into the subsequent analysis. This study presented cogent evidence to account for the existence of N-bar in Lokaa and since N-bar plays a crucial role in differentiating different classes of post nominal modifiers namely: complement PPs and adjunct PPs, we therefore direct our research light on these two post nominal modifiers. Complement PPs are presented as sisters of a lexical head [N] in the phrase and daughters of N-bar while Adjunct PPs are presented as both sisters and daughters of N-bar. Arguments in support of the structural distinction between complements and adjuncts in Lokaa were established. Findings reveal that N-bar is realisable in Lokaa syntax and that adjunct can be iterated, reordered and can stand next to one but that complements must be located next to the head and cannot be reordered. Complements could also conjoin with complements, and adjuncts with adjuncts but we could not mix the two. The paper concludes that complements are more closely linked to their heads than adjuncts.
Keywords: Lokaa language, N-bar, Complement, Adjunct and Specifier